Interested in learning more about best practices for classroom discussion?
For more information and a variety of perspectives on effective techniques:
- Carnegie Mellon University's Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence and Educational Innovation
- Stanford University Teaching Commons
- Yale University Poorvu Center for Teaching and Learning
References for Facilitating Classroom Discussion Web pages
Allen, D., & Tanner, K. (2005). Infusing active learning into the large-enrollment biology class: Seven strategies, from the simple to complex. Cell Biology Education, 4, 262-268.
Barkley, E. F. (2010). Student engagement techniques: A handbook for college faculty. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Berrett, D., Suplano, B., & McMurtrie, B. (2018, November 14). One way to help students confront their political biases. The Chronicle of Higher Education – Teaching newsletter.
Brookfield, S. D., & Preskill, S. (1999). Discussion as a way of teaching: Tools and techniques for democratic classrooms. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Carney, A. G., Fry, S. W., Gabriele, R. V., & Ballard, M. (2008). Reeling the the big fish: Changing pedagogy to encourage the completion of reading assignments. College Teaching, 56(4), 195-200.
Ezzedeen, S. R. 2008. Facilitating class discussions around current and controversial issues: Ten recommendations for teachers. College Teaching, 56(4), 230-236.
Henning, J. E. (2005). Leading discussions: Opening up the conversation. College Teaching, 53(3), 90-94.
Howard, Jay. (2019). How to hold a better class discussion. Chronicle of Higher Education.
Howard, J., Zoeller, A., & Pratt, Y. (2006). Students' race and participation in sociology classroom discussion: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 6(1), 14-38.
Jones, R. C. (2008). The “why” of class participation: A question worth asking. College Teaching, 56(1), 59-62.
Kolikant, Y. B-D., Drane, D., & Calkins, S. (2010). “Clickers” as catalysts for transformation of teachers. College Teaching, 58(4), 127-135.
Kunda, Z. (1990). The case for motivated reasoning. Psychological Bulletin, 108(3), 480-498.
Messineo, M., Gaither, G., Bott, J., & Ritchey, K. (2007). Inexperienced versus experienced students' expectations for active learning in large classes. College Teaching, 55(3), 125-133.
Prystowsky, R.J. (2021). Can you hear me now? The challenges and promise of viewpoint diversity. Liberal Education, 107(1).
Rocca, K. A. (2010). Student participation in the college classroom: An extended multidisciplinary literature. Communication Education, 59(2), 185-213.
Roehling, P. V., Vander Kooi, T. L., Dykema, S., Quisenberry, B., & Vandlen, C. (2011). Engaging the millennial generation in class discussions. College Teaching, 59(1), 1-6.
Salter, D. W., & Persaud, A. (2003). Women's views of the factors that encourage and discourage classroom participation. Journal of College Student Development 44(6), 831-44.
Suplano, B., & Berrett, D. (2018, July 19). Running class discussions on divisive topics is tricky. Here’s one promising approach. The Chronicle of Higher Education – Teaching newsletter.
Tanner, K. D. (2011). Moving theory into practice: A reflection on teaching a large, introductory biology course for majors. (2011). CBE—Life Sciences Education, 10, 113-122.
Tatum, H. E., Schwartz, B. M., Schimmoeller, P. A., & Perry, N. (2013). Classroom participation and student-faculty interactions: Does gender matter? The Journal of Higher Education, 84(6): 745-768.
Thayaril, S., Borrego, M., Prince, M., Nguyen, K. A., Shekhar, P., Finelli, C. J., & Waters, C. (2018). Strategies to mitigate student resistance to active learning. International Journal of STEM Education, 5(7). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40594-018-0102-y.
White, J. W. (2011). Resistance to class participation: Minority students, academic discourse, cultural conflicts, and issues of representation in whole class discussions. Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, 10(4), 250-265.
Yazedjian, Ani, & Kolkhorst, B. B. (2007). Implementing small-group activities in large lecture classes. College Teaching, 55(4), 164-169.